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The AZC's internal "Information and Public Relations Department" reports.

"For obvious reasons our activities in this area cannot be minutely described, nor can we give names, dates, or places.  We are, however, fighting hostile propagandists as one of our major activities throughout the year by: a. a careful check of newspapers, bulletins and confidential sources of our own, who can give us reliable information on the movements or itineraries of these propagandists. b. alerting our community contacts...c. requesting that all known meetings be monitored....furnishing speakers and arranging for them to address the forums..."


Between 1962-1963 the Senate Foreign Relations Committee subpoenaed internal reports of the American Zionist Council during its investigation into the activities of registered agents of foreign principals.  They discovered that more than $5 million in tax exempt (and possibly overseas donations) had been laundered through the Jewish Agency's American Section into the American Zionist Council.  The Jewish Agency functioned as a quasi-branch of the Israeli government, received Israeli government funding, and was able to review legislation before it went to the Knesset under its Covenant Agreement.  

This violated IRS regulations on the use of tax exempt charitable funds and the 1938 Foreign Agents Registration Act. 

The following reports detail how the American Zionist Council used the funding in a sophisticated campaign to cajole and intimidate news media, subvert open debate about Israel and undermine reporting about key issues of the day such as Israel's Dimona nuclear weapons facility, operation Susannah terror attacks on the United States, and the return of Arab refugees to their homes.  The AZC tracked and targeted professors and engaged in covert operations obliquely referred to in the following internal reports.

After the Justice Department ordered the American Zionist Council to register as a foreign agent in late 1962, it transferred responsibilities to the American Israel Public Affairs Committee, which refuses to register as a foreign agent of the Israeli government.

On May 19, 1970, the Dow Jones Observer reported, "In 1963 the Senate Foreign Relations Committee investigated the Jewish Agency and uncovered a 'conduit' operation run by an organization called the American Zionist Council.  Over an eight-year period, this council received more than $5,000,000 from the Jewish Agency to create favorable public opinion in this country for Israeli government policies.  The Senate investigation closed down the conduit, but the extensive propaganda activities still go on."

Click links to the left to download scanned PDFs of the original documents.  Excerpts of document content appear to the right.

PDF/File Date Contents
11-12/1960 Bi-Monthly Report

"During this two-month period, there was considerable editorial and news comment dealing with many issues affecting Israel and the Middle East.  While the preponderance of this material concerned itself with Israel's new nuclear reactor, the following items were dealt with in more than passing fashion: (1) Arab refugees (the issue was again before the U.N. General Assembly; (2) The Eichmann case (some of the opposition forces are still at it); (3) Israel's aid to the African nations (almost everybody in America should be aware of this aid by now; and (4) seating of the UAR in the Security Council (a number of papers attacked it).

"The nuclear reactor story inspired comment from many sources; editorial writers, columnists, science writers and cartoonists.  Most of the press seemed finally to accept the thesis that the reactor was being built for peaceful purposes and not for bombs. Some columnists felt that the U.S. should have awaited more information before 'ventilating its suspicions'.  Drew Pearson's syndicated column justified Israel's secrecy; William Laurence in the New York Times stressed Israel's peaceful intent, in contrast to Arthur Krock who wanted the reactor placed under international safeguards. Arab protagonists in this country—including those in the State Department who raised all the fuss initially—used the occasion to try to cast doubt on Israel's friendship toward the U.S."

"The nuclear reactor story inspired comment from many sources; editorial writers, columnists, science writers and cartoonists.  Most of the press seemed finally to accept the thesis that the reactor was being built for peaceful purposes and not for bombs. Some columnists felt that the U.S. should have awaited more information before 'ventilating its suspicions'.  Drew Pearson's syndicated column justified Israel's secrecy; William Laurence in the New York Times stressed Israel's peaceful intent, in contrast to Arthur Krock who wanted the reactor placed under international safeguards. Arab protagonists in this country—including those in the State Department who raised all the fuss initially—used the occasion to try to cast doubt on Israel's friendship toward the U.S."

"It can be said that the press of the nation, during 1960 has by and large shown sympathy and understanding of Israel's position.  There are, of course, exceptions, notably the Scripps-Howard chain where we still need to achieve a "break-through", the Pulliam chain (where some progress has been made) and some locally-owned papers."

The Magazine Committee...continues to meet regularly.  Writers with whom we are in contact have readied articles for Reader's Digest and are discussing another article with the Saturday Evening Post.  (The Reader's Digest 'pulled' a story on Eichmann after type was set and the author was paid, on the flimsy excuse that Israel's agreement to pay Servatius now casts some doubts on the article without going into any further explanations.  It was Mrs. Eichmann's refusal, incidentally, to contribute to her husbands defense out of the monies she received from Life Magazine that prompted Servatius to approach the Israel Government)...We stimulated seven letters to Time because of their treatment of the review of Exodus."

"We circulated widely our run-down on Harry Ellis' book Challenge in the Middle East.  (The extent of the distribution of this material, together with discussions by our New England representative with editors of the Christian Science Monitor, in our opinion, resulted in the Monitor's recent failure to publish a number of Ellis' dispatches from the Middle East.  Apparently the editors did not want to associate Ellis too prominently with the Monitor during a period of strong adverse reaction in some quarters to his book.)  We continue to urge upon community leaders presentations of a suitable Israel or Middle East Bookshelf to local and college libraries...Our office provided books, bibliographies and pamphlets to academicians, graduate students and community leaders in response to requests for information."

"During the months of November and December, there were 260 appearances in 83 cities and 24 states.  This brought the total number of engagements for this year to 2,124....The the total number of speaking engagements—the overwhelming number of which were set up before Christian and general audiences—under the auspices of the Department came to the sum of 2,661."

"It is not surprising to note that Dr. Allyn Robinson of the National Conference of Christians and Jews has gotten some negative responses to his first-rate article on anti-Semitism which appeared in Social Action.  In that article he stated that 'it is sometimes a very short step from anti-Zionism to anti-Semitism and many an Arab and his American friends have taken it.' We helped assemble the material to make it possible for Robinson to substantiate his point."

"AZC turned down a request from the Christian Advocate to debate the Eichmann case editorially with the Council for Judaism."  "The AZC Commission on Inter-Religious Affairs decided against our formally replying to Rabbi Philip Sigal's attack in the fall issue of The Torch, organ of the National Federation of Jewish Men's Clubs."

"Arab speakers have been active on many campuses, but in almost all instances they have been counteracted..."

"Dr. Joseph Schechtman's article "Contra the Middle East Institute" was published in the Reconstructionist.  We ordered reprints which were sent primarily to academicians around the country."

"The U.S. contingent of 60 Mayors returned from Israel where they attended the Conference this year.  While in Israel, a number of them were interviewed by our representative who sent stories back to their hometown papers; they were also recorded in interviews for local radio stations.  We notified community leaders of those mayors who attended the conference in Israel' in many cases, local Zionist leaders have already met with mayors and are developing plans to place them before Jewish and Christian audiences, etc.

"We continue to encourage visits to Israel by public opinion molders and, where possible, assist with financial arrangements...Recent visitors in whom we had more than a rooting interest returned from Israel quite enthusiastic and it is, therefore, hoped that they will be helpful to us in the future.  These include: Harold Flanders, TV and movie writer, who has joined our Radio-TV Committee; James Flanagan, Associate editor of the Christian, (church publication) St. Louis; the Donald Harringtons of the Community Church in New York....Agnes Mayer, co-owner of the Washington Post, who has done some excellent writing since her return; the Ethridges of the Louisville Courier Journal....Our representative in Israel continues to meet with visiting Christians and arranges briefings, hospitality, etc..."

"ACJ continues its attempts to get on TV and Radio, with small success.  Our policy continues to be not to enter into public debates with them; this stand has caused many producers to drop program ideas initiated by ACJ...Their speakers on campus have been counteracted effectively...In Los Angeles, the International Round Table, which had scheduled both Berger and Sayegh, dropped them after inquiries in the Jewish community.

ACJ remains, however, a potent anti-Zionist and anti-Israel force.  The AZC is now discussing a project which, if implemented, should go a long way in diminishing the acceptance of ACJ in many quarters."

01/19/1961 Mrs. Moses P. Epstein, Chairman of the AZC Department of Information and Public Relations issues material for Israel's thirteenth anniversary PR, including draft proclamations for governors and mayors to declare the week of April 20 "Israel Independence Week".
01-02/1961 Bi-Monthly Report - "The opposition groups took the initiative, as in the past, via letters to the editor on such subjects as BG's (David Ben-Gurion) speech on Aliyah, the Eichmann case, Israel's reactor, the Lavon affair and Israel's 'discrimination' against its minorities.  Among the more prominent letter writers were Hans Kohn, Edna Ferber, and Hamilton Fish."

"We also took the initiative in sending the letters to papers throughout the country attacking Nasser on issues wholly unrelated to the Arab-Israel controversy."

LIFE Magazine (February 17) carried a hostile editorial titled: 'The Crisis in Zionism'.  The AZC stimulated several hundred letters to the publication in disagreement with the editorial; a meeting with one of the editors has also been held and under consideration is a piece on Zionism to be prepared by us which they may print..."

"Some communities (Philadelphia, Miami Beach, San Francisco, and Los Angeles) are planning to augment our speakers program by establishing local speakers bureaus.  This involves recruitment, training, and placement of speakers on local platforms."

"Currently, work is proceeding on preparation of a Unit on Israel (about 100 pages) for use by Jr. and Sr. High School teachers.  The Committee plans to find and recruit nuclei of friendly academicians in areas outside of the Greater New York Area."

"A partial scholarship is being offered to an Israel student to transfer to the Monterey Peninsula College where propaganda carried on by three Arab professors has been most hurtful...Mrs. Lasdon of Schenectady has been instrumental in obtaining the cooperation of Union College in creating a scholarship for an Israel student there."

"We continue to cultivate faculty people in many areas and are making progress here...Efforts are being made by our friends in the San Francisco area to persuade Stanford to drop Fayez Sayeh from the faculty on the grounds that he is a paid propagandist rather than an objective academician...Dr. Zucker at the University of Utah is at work attempting to obtain endowment of a chair to be held by a Jew who should be a distinguished Semiticist, and the prospects seem favorable.  This campus is especially significant as it is staffed with Arab professors and its 50 Arab students are highly active."

"Prof. Arnold Toynbee was invited to spend about five months in this country...When Toynbee accusations first broke in the press, we call together the major non-Zionist groups and evolved a common policy' (1) Discourage all Jewish Groups for issuing invitations to Toynbee; (2) Monitor all public appearances and refrain from bringing up the subject of Israel or the Jews unless Toynbee raises the subject in his presentation.  The two recommendations were carried out."  "We have provided our community contacts with material they could use should the situation warrant it; this material has been used effectively in several situations..."

"We continue to try to make contact with those who have gone to Israel under other auspices following their return in order to advance our p.r. program."

"The ACJ [American Council for Judaism] is today the most effective anti-Zionist and anti-Israel force on the American scene.  It continues its aggressive campaign and is concentrating on the mass media and in church circles.  Its success is due primarily to the fact that being a Jewish organization (they operate under the term 'Judaism') it becomes acceptable to those in the communications field who thrive on controversy and who can now present 'another Jewish point of view'.  Its position also finds an echo among those Christians—who, either because of some degree of latent anti-Semitism or because of obligations to the Arabs—can now join the fray without fear of being called anti-Semitic; ('I am in good Jewish company')."

"Whatever the reasons, the ACJ will require much more attention on our part now than in the past.  In this campaign we will need the assistance of the non-Zionists and especially that of the organized Jewish religious leadership.  It is the task of the AZC to stimulate, mobilize and direct this effort, and will require the services of a full-time staff person."

04/03/1961 AZC Department of Information and Public Relations memo addressed to Executive Directors of Zionist Groups and Select New York Area List

"On Wednesday evening, April 5, at 7:3- PM, WCBS-TV will telecast a one-hour documentary on 'Eichmann and Israel'.  Dr. Nahum Goldmann, Dr. Joachim Prinz and Dr. John Slawson are among the interviewees on the American scene.  It should be noted that these men were taped for the program without the knowledge that Rabbi Elmer Berger of the American Council for Judaism would also be on the program."

"The American Council for Judaism has taken steps to see to it that WCBS receives hundreds of letters and phone calls praising Berger's remarks and thanking the station for inviting him to appear. (The ACJ has been conducting a campaign for months now to achieve such recognition in the mass media)."

It would be most helpful if you could stimulate your membership and friends to send notes to WCBS or to make hone calls following the telecast indicating displeasure at their having invited Berger and challenging his right to appear as a Jewish spokesman in view of the fact that his organization has been denounced by all three Rabbinic organizations in Judaism.

Individuals should be encouraged to write their own letters."

04/11/1961 AZC organizes tours of Israel through the American Christian Palestine Committee Study Tour.  "We, therefore, turn to you once again to help in the selection of a suitable man or woman of some stature in your community who can upon his return help interpret Israel to the general community.  An educator, religious leader, editor, or civic leader who is generally sympathetic to the aims of Israel, but one in need of greater knowledge of Middle East problems, would make the ideal tour participant."
5/1961 Budgetary Digest of the American Zionist Council

"The AZC was formerly financed by the Jewish Agency for Israel, but this financial support was to cease at March 31, 1961.  The source of this Jewish Agency support of the AZC was the UJA which is finance by Welfare Funds.  The AZC is seeking direct support from Welfare Funds since the reorganization of the Jewish Agency for Israel, Inc. in 1960 resulted in the separation of AZC activities from the basic program of immigrant aid which will continue to be financed by the Jewish Agency for Israel.  This separation was in line with the principal that decisions and support of domestic activities should be made by the American Jewish community rather than by an international agency."

05/19/1961 Mrs. Moses P. Epstein, Chairman of the AZC Department of Information and Public Relations issues guidance on the Adolf Eichmann trial.  "It became necessary almost from the start, therefore, to conduct an educational campaign on the Eichmann issue to reach molders of public opinion throughout the country, stressing the moral issues involved..."  "Please continue to monitor the press in your area, including the church press, for comments on the Eichmann trial.  ."
09-10/1961 Bi-monthly Report --Department of Information and Public Relations.  "Very little comment appeared editorially on the Israeli Arabs who were shot in crossing the border into Egypt...There was a slight lessening of hostile letters to the editor."  "Israel fared extremely well during this period, with five or six major articles in the top publications: Atlantic Monthly, Reader's Digest, Look, Holiday, Saturday Review...Our Magazine Committee continues to be active in the planning and placement of articles..." 

"The Atlantic Monthly in its October issue carried the outstanding Martha Gellhorn piece on the Arab refugees, which made quite an impact around the country.  We arranged for the distribution of 10,000 reprints to public opinion molders in all categories.  Acting on information that anti-Israel groups were bombarding the Atlantic with critical letters, we stimulated a letter campaign designed to counteract their impact...Interested friends are making arrangements with the Atlantic for another reprint of the Gellhorn article to be sent to all 53,000 persons whose names appear in Who's Who in America...The November issue of the Atlantic carried a special 64-page Supplement on Israel, with articles by some of Israel's top names. Our Boston office edited the Yadin article..." "Jack Anderson, following his return from Israel, is now doing a piece for Parade Publications...We wrote the piece on Zionism for the Spencer Press Encyclopedia...Our Committee is now planning articles for the women's magazines for the trade and business publications...Meyer Levin's piece on Buber will appear in the New York Times Magazine any day now..."

"Two network shows were arranged...We counteracted Don Peretz' interviews on several programs with our own people who either appeared simultaneously or at a subsequent date."

"AZC continues to counteract all hostile speeches on campuses by placing appropriate speakers on the same platforms."  "Representations by the Boston office resulted in the cancellation of an inflammatory Arab film which dealt with the refugees."

"Kenneth Wilson did a splendid piece for the Christian Herald upon his return [from Israel]..The same applies to William Henry Chamberlin who two articles have already appeared in the Wall Street Journal and one in the New Leader..Earl Ubell continues to write and plan articles on Israel (he is now writing one for the Saturday Evening Post).

"We continue to counteract the Arab speakers wherever they appear, by placing our own speakers on the same platforms..."

"Mailings have gone out to public opinion molders dealing with current issues.."

09/27/1961 AZC Department of Information and Public Relations memo addressed to Local Zionist Council Chairmen.  "The current issue of The Atlantic, now on the newsstands, features a 20-page article on 'The Arabs of Palestine" which is one of the best articles on the subject yet to be written.  This piece, coming from the pen of Martha Gellhorn, celebrated journalist, novelist and war correspondent, assumes added significance in view of the discussion of this issue which will take place at this session of the U.S. General Assembly."

We urge you to get a copy for your own reading and also that you bring it to the attention of key individuals in your community.  We have arranged for reprints which will not be available until late October (the publishers frown on their appearance while the current issue is on the stands) which you can then send on to a larger list of public opinion molders in your area. (The charge for the reprint will be ten cents per copy.)

Meanwhile, would you also drop a note to the editors (8 Arlington Street, Boston, Massachusetts) indicating, among other comments you may care to make, your gratification at their having printed such an illuminating article.  Undoubtedly, the 'opposition' is stimulating a heavy letter campaign and it would be helpful if the editors also received a substantial number of letters of commendation."

11-12/1961 Bi-Monthly Report - 'Hundreds of editorials appeared in the press commenting on the Eichmann verdict; about 6% of those were highly critical of Israel (in such major papers as the Cincinnati Enquirer, Tulsa Tribune, Pittsburgh Post-Gazette, Salt Lake City Tribune, and Norfolk Ledger-Dispatch)...40% of the press...opposed the death sentence, 20% suggested the trial should have been held by an international tribunal.  Almost all papers, however, agreed that Eichmann received a fair trial..."

"There was considerably less comment on the Arab refugee debate in the U.N.  Papers which did comment were generally critical of the Arab determination to use the issue for political purposes; editorials generally favored resettlement in the Arab countries..."

"Perhaps the most effective letter was written by a former refugee, now resident in the United States, whose letter appeared in the Christian Science Monitor of November 26.  In it he states that the Arabs were threatened y the Arab Higher Committee and the Mufti should they refuse to leave the country and that 'we were driven from our home, not by our Jewish neighbors who offered us peace, but by the short-sighted fanatics of our own people.'  This letter has been widely circulated and another offset is planned for even wider distribution."

"US News and World Report took a searching look at Nasser's future and found it rather bleak.  The Atlantic said the UAR breakup was a most serious setback for Nasser.  It also carried seven letters commenting on the (excellent) Gellhorn piece on the Arab refugees; four of these in praise (which we stimulated) and three critical...Atlantic will carry another Gellhorn piece...We continue to give distribution to the Gelhorn reprint and some local Zionist Councils are doing the same...A study by Dr. Joseph Schechtman, 'Minorities in the Muslim World' has been accepted for publication by India Quarterly, organ of the Indian Council for Foreign Affairs, in New Delhi.  It is scheduled to appear in the forthcoming issue.  We ordered a number of reprints for distribution."

"Perfidy, the Ben Hecht [book] indictment of Israel's leaders, has been damaging; Hecht himself worked hard in the promotional effort and made a number of radio and TV appearances.  Some reviewers tried hard not to offend either Israel or Hecht, and thus left the reader somewhat confused.  Several attempts to do a Fact Sheet on the book were inconclusive due to the nature of the charges and lack of available factual material with which to positively refute those charges...The publishers claim a sale of 35,000 copies of the book."

"Don Kellerman, producer of the CBS ACCENT Program, will be leaving for Israel to look into some program possibilities.  Two NBC people will also be making the trip early in 1962 for similar purposes."

"Fayez Sayegh, noted Arab propagandist, is leaving Stanford to take up a one-year residence professorship in September at Macalester College in St. Paul.  He was appointed to fill a Chair of International Studies endowed by DeWitt Wallace of the Readers Digest, (who will be giving Macalester $3 million during the next few years.)...We have alerted our friends in the area to Sayegh's propaganda activities while at Stanford.  There is much concern in the Jewish community and approaches are being made to President Rice of Macalester.  Rice is being acquainted not only with Sayegh's record; the public relations implications of Sayegh's off-campus activities will also be brought to his attention..."

"The Department now monitors the publications containing information and comment on international affairs which go into the elementary, junior and senior high schools..."  "Our representative in Israel continues to arrange meetings, receptions and interview for visiting VIP Americans..."

"Hadawi's allegations that newspapers in the East are under Zionist pressure, carried in the Lubbock Avalanche, elicited a rejoinder from its editor...We continue to counteract Arab speakers on all platforms with pro-Israel speakers; thus, Hadawi was followed up by Matityahu Dagan and Shlomo Efrat, Hassan by Hedzini, etc...The Birmingham Zionist leadership has been effectively counteracting the Arabs in that area..."

"Its [American Friends of the Middle East] new publication...carried a stinging condemnation of the Gellhorn article on the refugees, adding; 'We cannot repeat often enough that Zionist-inspired controls, propaganda and pressures, of which the article in question is merely one of a long series, seriously prejudice the American position in the Middle East and greatly increase the probabilities of renewed warfare...'"

02-05/1962 American Zionist Council Calendar of Speaking Engagements.

AZC Area Southern Office reports activities between September 1, 1961 through May 31, 1962.  "The Southern Area Office of AZC has also cooperated with Consulates of Israel in Atlanta, Georgia and Dallas, Texas in setting up speaking engagements for the Consuls and Vice-Consuls before non-Jewish groups in a number of communities.  These are: Asheville, Mobile, New Orleans, Baton Rouge, Little Rock, Lubbock, Montgomery."

Under the heading "Anti-Israel Propaganda" the report states "For obvious reasons our activities in this area cannot be minutely described, nor can we give names, dates, or places.  We are, however, fighting hostile propagandists as one of our major activities throughout the year by: a. a careful check of newspapers, bulletins and confidential sources of our own, who can give us reliable information on the movements or itineraries of these propagandists. b. alerting our community contacts...c. requesting that all known meetings be monitored....furnishing speakers and arranging for them to address the forums..."

"For the observance of Israel's 14th anniversary, we offered to our local councils and key community leaders the following....A play "A Message from Dimona", written by Marc Siegel especially for the American Zionist Council for presentation by dramatic groups, community centers and others celebrating the anniversary." (Described as a "story of a new city in the Israeli desert" in the New York Times radio broadcast schedule)

10/30/1962 AZC Department of Information report to the AZC Executive Committee.  "part of the work of the original Council had now been taken over by the Kenen Committee which was charged with political action ..greater emphasis is now put on a more subtle approach, which, through positive presentation of Israel's accomplishments, aims and purpose—and by counter-attack of the many enemies of Israel and the Zionist movement—helps create a favorable image of Israel and the Zionist movement."

"The office staff monitors daily press...When hostile attacks on Israel or the Zionist movement appear anywhere, material is prepared and sent, either directly to the editor or from the office as draft material to our friends and groups throughout the country who might have better access to a particular publication involved..."  "In one recent week, for example, we were forced to research and prepare communications in reply to three extremely inimical articles appearing in the Columbia University (Quarterly) Forum, Cosmopolitan Magazine, and Editor and Publisher..."

"The Research Bureau also analyzes books and articles which deal with Israel or the Middle East.  When a book is favorable, it is recommended.  When it is unfavorable, it is analyzed and distortions are pointed up by providing the factual data required, so that our local Councils will be prepared to react....We also stimulate book presentations to libraries, both community and university libraries..."

"Magazine Committee.....We cannot pinpoint all that has already been accomplished by this Committee except to say that it has been responsible for the writing and placement of articles on Israel in some of America's leading magazines...."

"TV-Radio Committee....The Committee arranges for talks and interviews on radio and TV; submits ideas for possible programs to stations and networks so as to give a better and more sympathetic understanding of Israel to the viewing American public..."

"Public Relations Advisory Council....last week 15 of the outstanding public relations men of this city sat around this table to consider how they could be of help in presenting a positive picture of Israel in the U.S."

The Role of Communities....One word about our effort to transplant this work at the grass roots level, without which its final impact is lost...we are only at the beginning of development in this field...we have learned we can attract into our fold men and women who have no present Zionist affiliation, no definite understanding of what Zionism is—but who have an excited interest in Israel and a willingness to help....If we know how to exploit this willingness to become a more integral part of the Jewish people, we can begin to meet our Zionist responsibility..."

Archive On November 21, 1962 the Department of Justice orders the American Zionist Council to register as an Israeli foreign agent.
11/29/1962 AZC president Jerome Unger memo centralizes all public relations activities.  "Beginning immediately and extending through April 30, 1963 we have engaged Mr. Ernest Barbarash to conduct the 'internal public relations' activities of the AZC...You may submit your material and requests directly to Mr. Barbarash or channel them through my office, as you desire...it is rare that we are concerned with this kind of need suddenly..."
12/10/1962 "We know that community leaders, as well as Christian public opinion molders, who are actively engaged in the creation of a better understanding of Israel and the Middle East have found the Near East Report an important and vital source of information....Unfortunately, we must now inform you that the Council is no longer in a position to continue this service..."


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